1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Abaissé re-reads the novel in its entirety! All welcome, no matter whether you're reading in French or some other translation. Discussion topics for each step along the way.

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Re: 1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Postby Roses for Ophelia » Thu Sep 30, 2010 4:33 am

I've always wondered about this. There probably is a logical answer and i've just missed it, but i'm asking anyway. Cosette is born in 1815. Fantine gets dumped in 1817. Tholomeyes doesn't seem to know he has a child. WHAT WAS FANTINE DOING WITH COSETTE FOR TWO YEARS?

Have i just missed something?
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Re: 1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Postby hazellwood » Thu Sep 30, 2010 4:41 am

Ophelia, he knows, that's why he's such an ass.

Ummm on the subject of coincidences and digressions and stuff... I like it. I thought the Cosette-Tholomyes thing was pretty interesting, and, yeah, a little out there, but I liked it.

...but I like the convent digression, so.

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Re: 1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Postby Roses for Ophelia » Thu Sep 30, 2010 4:53 am

He does? He doesn't SEEM to know, he doesn't mention Cosette. So then, if he knows, and his family is somewhere else, and Fantine has no family, where has she been keeping Cosette? Is the poor thing home alone all day? I doubt Fantine would do that, since she obviously loves her daughter.
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Re: 1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Postby hazellwood » Thu Sep 30, 2010 5:08 am

I worded that wrong-- there is no reason for him not to know, thus, by all logic, he knows.

There's also a slim chance that this is Hugo messing up his time line, but that's highly unlikely.

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Re: 1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Postby MmeBahorel » Thu Sep 30, 2010 2:13 pm

Am at work, will reply to some of this further when I get home.

Ulkis: Off the top of my head, much of what the Napoleonic Code does is strengthen family ties after the Revolution broke many of them (see, institution of divorce). I'll have to look up more specifics later.

Ophelia: The baby is almost certainly left with a neighbor from time to time, since Fantine did not put her out to nurse.

I'll double check the notes when I get home, but I think Rosa doesn't consider this a timeline screw up. I also want to check the French on the "big reveal" because there may be a shade of meaning there that gets elided in translation.
What kind of literature and what kind of life is the same question. - Tom Stoppard

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Re: 1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Postby Ulkis » Thu Sep 30, 2010 4:38 pm

mmeb., thanks!

Ummm on the subject of coincidences and digressions and stuff... I like it. I thought the Cosette-Tholomyes thing was pretty interesting, and, yeah, a little out there, but I liked it.


I don't dislike all of them, just a few. :) Honestly I don't remember what I think of the convent digression, mostly I rushed through it because my Denny translation put that chapter as an extra at the end of the book, and at that point I just wanted to be done because I had already reached the end of the story. This time I around I might find it interesting.

He does? He doesn't SEEM to know, he doesn't mention Cosette.


The short explanation, dramatic effect for the reveal at the end of the chapter. The slightly less short explanation, we only spend one day with Tholomyes I think, so it's not unreasonable that they don't mention her for a couple of hours.

But speaking of where the hell are the little children kept, I don't get how the hell Fantine survived as a child if she had no home and she doesn't seemed to have stayed at an orphanage.

Random thoughts:

-I don't know why but I love Favourite's backstory.

-Tholomyes is BALD? And has no teeth either?! He must have been really charming.

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Re: 1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Postby Frédérique » Thu Sep 30, 2010 4:43 pm

-Tholomyes is BALD? And has no teeth either?! He must have been really charming.


He is already lacking what Fantine ends up selling.

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Re: 1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Postby collectingbees » Fri Oct 01, 2010 7:32 am

that above comment made me laugh so hard I cried.

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Re: 1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Postby Ulkis » Fri Oct 01, 2010 3:22 pm

Seriously, there is no up side to Tholomyes.

More of Hugo's weird nose obsession:

Her brow, her nose, her chin, presented that equilibrium of outline which is quite distinct from equilibrium of proportion, and from which harmony of countenance results; in the very characteristic interval which separates the base of the nose from the upper lip, she had that imperceptible and charming fold, a mysterious sign of chastity, which makes Barberousse fall in love with a Diana found in the treasures of Iconia.

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Re: 1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Postby MmeBahorel » Fri Oct 01, 2010 7:37 pm

I mostly want to post this RIGHT NOW because of the last note for Chapter 2:

Chapitre II

33(Oscar, I am about to see him!): Chanson anonyme, dans le goût oriental:
Chantez, enfants du rivage d'Asie
Des mains d'Oscar j'ai reçu le mouchoir;
Brûlez pour lui les parfuns d'Arabie,
Oscar s'avance, Oscar, je vais le voir.
Autre signe de la vogue de ce prénom, Glapieu, dans Mille Francs de récompense, pour se faire ouvrir par Cyprienne, lance d'abord << Alfred >>, puis << Oscar >>. Oscar est aussi un des personnages de La Forêt mouillée.

Anonymous song, in the Oriental fashion:
Sing, children of the shore of Asia,
From Oscar's hands I received the handkerchief.
Burn for him the perfumes of Arabia,
Oscar is coming, Oscar, I will see him soon.
Another sign of the vogue of this first name, Glapieu, in A Thousand Francs of Recompence, in order to get Cyprienne to let him in, cries first “Alfred”, then “Oscar”. Oscar is also one of the characters in The Watery Forest.

34 (Fantine, called the Blonde): D'abord prénommée Marguerite Louet (voir plus loin << marguerite ou perle >>, en latin margarita signifie perle – texte annoté 62), Fantine semble l'écho décapité de << enfantine >>. Hugo se souvient peut-être aussi de ces fées protectrices de l'enfance, nommée Fantine par les Vaudois d'Arras, ainsi qu'aurait pu le lui apprendre, par Michelet interposé, un livre du pasteur Muston, paru en 1834, selon un hypothèse soutenue par J. Gaulmier. Sur l'ononmastique des Misérables, voir d'Anne Ubersfeld, << Nommer la misère>>, Revue des Sciences Humaines, oct.-déc.1974.
First named Marguerite Louet (see later “marguerite or perle”, in Latin margarita means pearl – note 62), Fantine seems the shortened echo of “enfantine” [childlike]. Hugo perhaps also remembers these protective fairies of childhood, called Fantine by the Vaudois of Arras, as could have been taught him, by Michelet interposed, by a book by Pastor Muston, appearing in 1834, according to a hypothesis supported by J. Gaulmier. On the onomastic in Les Misérables, see Anne Ubersfeld, “To Name Misery”, Revue des Sciences Humaines, Oct-Dec 1974.

35 (head at thirty, knee at forty): Ce qualificatif anticipa sur 1830. C'est en effet à la première d'Hernani que fut jeté le fameux cri : << à la guillotine, les genoux >>. Voir Th. Gautier, Le Gilet rouge. Ce portrait peu séduisant se complète par l'étymologie grecque du nom de Tholomyès où l'on peut lire << initié – ou initiateur – à la merde >>.
The qualification anticipates 1830. It's in effect at the premiere of Hernani that was thrown the famous cry, “to the guillotine, the knee-heads!” See Théophile Gautier, The Red Waistcoat. This unattractive portrait is completed by the Greek etymology of Tholomyès' name where one can read “initiated – or initiator – to shit.”

If anyone needed any help reading "Tholomyès is a douchebag", there we go :)

Also, I think the circumstances of Favourite's birth, though not footnoted, are probably somewhere in a coded entry in one of Hugo's diaries. Really thinking this one is, if not directly from real life, a distinctly real fantasy.

I'm not quite halfway through - we'll see how much more of the notes I can get up.

As for how Fantine survived, I imagine her childhood was something like: father abandoned mother, something happened to the mother and Fantine ended up wandering through the streets, just far enough that she was not readily identified. She has no legal identity if her mother never registered her birth with the town hall, and it seems Hugo was covering his ass on this. I do wonder if there was any sort of social breakdown with the heavy draft needed for the wars and the strange changes in government, so that, as in later periods in big cities, you had bands of street children who somehow managed, from a combination of charitable handouts, their own ingenuity, and occasional labour. M-sur-M is vastly smaller, 3500 people around 1800, but they got camp followers in 1803 (according to Wikipedia), so there may have been an increase in 'street arabs'. The basic idea Hugo is getting at is that she was never taken in by a particular family after her own had disappeared, and her own had disappeared too early for her to know them. She certainly would have had some charitable assistance, but not in a formal sense, and thus has grown up in a similar manner as Gavroche, half-wild.

This is why she is passionate over Tholomyès - having had no family, not even in the adoptive sense, she has never had love. Her heart has been starved for years, therefore it will eagerly accept even the most meager nourishment. Kindness is a different thing to love - Hugo tends to consider love in the overwhelming sense, I think, even when filial as opposed to romantic (see Léopoldine). The kindness of a neighbourhood for a stray child is never going to rise to the definition of love, not when there are no overwhelming sacrifices made by strangers for the benefit of the child. Giving her some bread now and again and not complaining if she stole eggs and permitting her to sleep in the corner of the garden without actively chasing her out are probably how she survived but hardly rise to any knowledge of "love".
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Re: 1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Postby MmeBahorel » Fri Oct 01, 2010 10:24 pm

Replying to Ulkis about some of the weird shit in the Napoleonic Code:

I'm going to quote straight from A History of Private Life: From the Fires of Revolution to the Great War, ed. Michelle Perrot, trans. Arthur Goldhammer, Harvard University Press, 1990 (there's a reason I think of this thing as The Book of Awesome), p 168-169:

The father's omnipotence extended to the children. Greater sensitivity to childhood had by no means reduced the family's authority or the father's power. In this respect the French Revolution had limited itself to minor reforms: Abrogation of paternal authority over grown children, elimination of the right to disinherit an heir, and limitation of the father's right to punish his children. Robespierre proposed taking children from their parents at the age of seven or eight and raising them in common so as to inculcate respect for new ideas, but the matter was never brought up for debate.

Despite Le Play's claim that the Revolution, by abolishing the right to make wills, had "killed the father", the Civil Code actually perpetuated many old ideas. Even the grown child was required t "show sacred respect at the sight of his progenitors", and, if "nature and law loose the bonds of parental authority on the child, reason tightens the knots." Until 1896 no one under the age of twenty-five could marry without parental consent.


This is the most succinct statement of the background to the Civil Code and its results. The next paragraph goes on to say "A father could request that his child be arrested and held in state prisons just as he had been able to do under the old system of lettres de cachet." Which is incredibly weird to modern thinking (particularly that in 1841, the state agreed to meet the costs of housing such prisoners so that even poor families could take advantage of the law to send 18 year olds they were annoyed with to jail for up to six months.

The Civil Code managed both to codify some of the Revolutionary reforms (restrictions on inheritance, divorce) and appease the people who thought the world was going to hell (the various controls over adult children, abolition of paternity suits). Even as it permitted the individual some greater rights, it overall strengthened the role of the family in society. I suspect this is a reason little of it was changed during the Restoration, because on the whole it aligned with Ancien Regime ideas. (The major changes were abolition of divorce and some things to make the inheritance of titles work more smoothly.)

As for Tholomyès' douchebaggery, final paragraph of this book in French is: Une heure après, quand elle fut rentrée dans sa chambre, elle pleura. C'était, nous l'avons dit, son premier amour ; elle s'était donnée à ce Tholomyès comme à un mari, et la pauvre fille avait un enfant.

There are no notes for the final chapter. I definitely had the initial thought of OMG!pregnant when I first read the English translation (Fahnestock/MacAfee), but Hugo did set it up within the very sentence - in fact, once you have finished "the poor girl had a child", you can very easily get the mental image of her weeping over an infant (since we learn the child's age and gender later). I do wonder if this is the point at which a reader realises Hugo has to be read very carefully, because he flips between using deeper meanings to his phrases and the precision being the deeper meaning itself. He can go on at length with a drowning man metaphor and make me facepalm when he finally states his meaning succinctly, but that very succinctness may be of a part with what he has done here: the very simplicity of the statement confirms its import. I may also be full of crap here; time to transcribe more notes and see if the girls are reminding me as much of the girls in La Bohème on this re-read as they are in my mind.
What kind of literature and what kind of life is the same question. - Tom Stoppard

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Re: 1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Postby Ulkis » Sat Oct 02, 2010 2:02 am

Thank you so much! Interesting stuff.

There are no notes for the final chapter. I definitely had the initial thought of OMG!pregnant when I first read the English translation (Fahnestock/MacAfee), but Hugo did set it up within the very sentence - in fact, once you have finished "the poor girl had a child", you can very easily get the mental image of her weeping over an infant (since we learn the child's age and gender later).


So did I. It got very confusing because I thought I got the timeline confused.

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Re: 1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Postby Euphrasie » Sat Oct 02, 2010 2:21 am

Ulkis wrote:

-Tholomyes is BALD? And has no teeth either?! He must have been really charming.

I always imagined that he was a younger version of Courfeyrac, but damn. He deserves a brofive or something for bagging someone like Fantine.
I'm pretty sure my cat's been reading my diary.

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Re: 1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Postby hazellwood » Sat Oct 02, 2010 2:32 am

Euphrasie wrote:
Ulkis wrote:-Tholomyes is BALD? And has no teeth either?! He must have been really charming.

I always imagined that he was a younger version of Courfeyrac, but damn. He deserves a brofive or something for bagging someone like Fantine.


He doesn't deserve her. (Wait, we knew this already.)

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Re: 1.3 En l'année 1817/In the Year 1817 28/09/10-6/10/10

Postby MmeBahorel » Sat Oct 02, 2010 3:19 am

More notes (Chapters 3-7)

Chapitre III

36 (Castaing): Célèbre empoisonneur, déjà cité dans Le Dernier Jour d'un condamné (chap. XI et XII) et qui se retrouvera, parmi d'autre criminels connus, en III, I, 7.
Famous poisoner, already cited in Last Day of a Condemned Man (chapters 11 and 12) and who will be found again, among other known criminels, in III, I, 7.

37 (whoever you are): Sur le même thème, le poème XXIII des Feuilles d'automne commence par les mêmes mots. Mais la nostalgie n'est plus ce qu'elle était car l'avenir réservé à Fantine, et la << fin >> choisi par Tholomyès et ses amis, enlèvent de leur innocence à ces souvenirs.
On the same theme, poem 23 of Autumn Leaves begins with the same words. But nostalgia is not what it was because the future reserved for Fantine, and the “end” chosen by Tholomyès and his friends, erases their innocence from these memories. [I may have screwed up that translation.]

38 (in what a state they are!): Voir, dans La Forêt mouillée (1854):
BALMINETTE
Bigre de bigre !
Je me mouille les pieds ! Nous sommes embourbés.
Mes brodequins tout neufs de dix francs sont flambés.

See, in The Watery Forest (1854):
BALMINETTE
Dangit!
I've soaked my feet! We're stuck in the mud.
My brand new ten franc boots are finished.

39 (keepsakes): Recueils de textes souvent sentimentaux, précieux par la reliure et les gravures. Madame Bovary stigmatise l'effet dévastateur sur la sensibilité féminine, et sur le goût, de cette mode venue d'Angleterre.[/i]
Collections of often sentimental texts, valued for the bindings and engravings. Madame Bovary stigmatises the devastating effect on the feminine sensability, and taste, of this fashion from England.

40 (Blondeau): Ce professeur de droit (1784-1854) servira encore en III, 4, 2 : Oraison funèbre de Blondeau, par Bossuet.
This professor of law will be used again in III, 4, 2: Funeral Oration on Blondeau, by Bossuet.

41 (Favourite's shawl): Châle fabriqué en France par la maison Ternaux, imitant le cachemire. << Boiteux>> : qui n'a de palmes que d'un côté. Pour leur mariage, Victor offrit à Adèle un << cachemire français >>. Était-ce un << ternaux boiteux >>?
Shawl made in France by Ternaux, imitating cashmere. “Lamed [shaky?]”: only has palms on one side. For their marriage, Victor offered Adèle a “French cashmere”. Was this a “lame ternaux”?

Chapitre IV

42 (out of sorts): Il faut peut-être rapprocher ce mot de celui de Gavroche appelant Cosette << mamselle Chosette >> (IV, 15, 2).
It is perhaps necessary to compare this word with that of Gavroche calling Cosette “Mamselle Chosette” (IV, 15, 2).

43 (a tus piernas): << Je suis de Badajoz ; l'amour m'appelle. Toute mon âme est dans mes yeux parce que tu montres tes jambes. >> On ignore si cette chanson est authentique ou l'oeuvre de Hugo : indécision qui est l'effet volontaire du texte.
“I come from Badajoz; love calls to me [or possibly my name is love]. All my soul is in my eyes because you show your legs.” We don't know if this song is authentic or the work of Hugo: indecision which is the intentional effect of the text.

44 (refused to swing): Cet épisode rappelle à la fois l'été 1819 où les Hugo rendaient visite aux Foucher alors en villégiature à Issy, et la balançoire des Feuillantines. Double image d'Adèle qui, comme Fantine, n'aimait pas trop être balancée (voir Victor Hugo raconté . . ., ouv. cit., p. 134).
This episode recalls at the same time the summer of 1819 when the Hugos visited the Fouchers on vacation in Issy, and the swing in the Feuillantines. Double image of Adèle who, like Fantine, did not like to swing.

45 (the Beaujon heights): Le jardin Beaujon, ancienne propriété du financier Beaujon, était une sorte de Luna-Park, et les << montagnes russes >> y furent inaugurées le 8 juillet 1817.
The Beaujon garden, former property of the financier Beaujon, was a sort of Luna Park, and the “Russian mountains” (roller coaster) there were opened 8 July 1817.

Chapitre V

46 (said Molière): Molière dit, plus exactement :
… Vous faisiez sous la table
Un bruit, un triquetrac de pieds épouvantable.
(L'Étourdi, IV, 4.)

Molière said, more precisely:
… You made under the table
A noise, an astonishing clamour.
(The Blunderer, act IV, scene 4)

47 (the silver fleur-de-lys): Les tois fils Hugo avaient été décoré du Lys d'argent en avril 1814, peut-être en remerciement indirect à Sophie pour son rôle dans la conspiration Malet. Le Victor Hugo raconté... mention ce << lys d'argent suspendu à un ruban de moiré blanche >> (p. 259).
The three Hugo sons had been decorated with the Silver Lily in April 1814, perhaps in indirect thanks to Sophie for her role in the Malet conspiracy. Victor Hugo Recounted... mentions this “silver lily hung from a white moiré ribbon” (p. 259).

48 (rue Greneta): Rue joignant la rue-Saint-Martin à la rue Montorgueil, où Blanqui et Barbès résistèrent héroïquement lors de l'insurrection de la Société des Saisons, en mai 1839.
Streeting joining the rue Saint-Martin at the rue Montorgueil, where Blanqui and Barbès heroically resisted during the insurrection of the Society of Seasons, in May 1839.

49 (that's his joy): Lointaine annonce du personnage de Gavroche.
Early sign of the character Gavroche.

Chapitre VI

50 (I'll make you stop): On croirait entendre Juliette, inspiratrice d'une bonne part du discours féminin chez Hugo. Ainsi cette lettre du 13 juillet 1835 : << Homme! Prenez garde à vous d'abord. Avec cela que mes nombreux couteaux sont aiguisés à frais, il pourrait bien y avoir un carnage atroce de votre chère petite personne si je découvrais la moindre infraction à la fidélité que vous me devez. >> (ouv. Cit., p. 23.)
La dernière phrase fait rêver quand on songe au << flagrant délit >> de 1845.

One could believe we hear Juliette, inspiration of a good part of Hugo's feminine discourse. Thus this letter from 13 July 1835: “Man! Take care of yourself first. With this are my numerous knives freshly sharpened, we could well have here an atrocious carnage of your dear little person if I discovered the least infraction against the faithfulness you owe me.” (p. 23)
The last phrase makes one dream when one considers the “flagrante delicto” of 1845.

Chapitre VII

51 (on Saint Peter): << Tu es Pierre, et sur cette pierre, je bâtirai mon Église. >> Pour la suite : Issac signifie << qui rit >> et son père, Abraham, fut pris de rire en entendant Dieu lui annoncer cette naissance ; le nom du héros batailleur de la tragédie Les Sept contre Thèbes est pris par Eschyle au sens étymologique : << qui a beaucoup de querelles >> ; Cléopâtre répond à Antoine inquiet de voir Octave à Toryne que le nom de cette ville ( << cuillère à pot >> ) montre un ennemi inoffensif.
“You are Peter, and on this stone, I will build my Church.” For the following: Isaac means “who laughs” and his father, Abraham, was taken with laughter in hearing God announce to him this birth; the name of the aggressive hero of the tragedy The Seven Against Thebes is taken by Aeschylus in the etymological sense: “who has many quarrels” ; Cleopatra answers Antony worried to see Octavius at Toryne that thename of this town (“soup ladle”) shows an inoffensive enemy.

52 (Amphiaraus): Devin argien qui combattit et mourut lors de l'expédition des << Sept contre Thèbes >>. Le temple élevé à sa mémoire était célèbre pour la qualité des oracles qui y étaient rendus.
Argive soothsayer who fought and died during the expedition of the “Seven Against Thebes”. The temple erected to his memory was celebrated for the quality of the oracles that were given there.

53 (Est modus in rebus): << Il faut de la mesure en toutes choses >> disait, en fait, Horace (Satires, I, 1).
“Moderation is necessary in all things” said, in fact, Horace (Satires, I, 1).

54 (Gulax): Gula : la gueule ; gulax signifierait << le glouton >> au prix d'un barbarisme.
Gula : the muzzle ; gulax would man “the glutton” at the price of a barbarism.

55 (questor of the Parricide): Le questeur du parricide est le juge d'instruction dans les affaire d'homicides. Quant à Munatius Demens, jusqu'à preuve du contraire, comprenons Munatius << déraillé >>, comme le sera Javert.
The questor of the parricide is the judge of instruction in the business of homicides. As for Munatius Demens, until proof to the contrary, let us understand Munatius “derailed”, as Javert will be.

56 (abdicate like Sylla or Origen): Sylla renonça au pouvoir et Origène, en se faisant émasculer, à l'amour. Tholomyès choisit d'imiter Origène plutôt que Sylla.
Sulla renounced power and Origen, in emasculating himself, love. Tholomyès chooses to imitate Origen sooner than Sulla.

57 (Félix): Le père de Cosette, homme << prospère >>, est le seul personnage, avec Marius, à bénéficier d'un prénom romain, - comme Victor.
Cosette's father, “prosperous” man, is the only character, with Marius, to get a Roman first name – like Victor. [and boy can we read some crazy shit into that one, Vic.]

58 (Nunc te, Bacche, canam): << Et maintenant c'est toi, Bacchus [Dieu du vin] que je vais chanter >> : début d'un << géorgique >> de Virgil (II, 2) proche du << Nunc est bibendum >> : << Maintenant, il faut boire >>, d'Horace.
“And now it's you, Bacchus [God of wine], to whom I will sing” : beginning of a “georgic” by Virgil (II, 2) close to “Nunc est bibendum”: “now, we must drink”, by Horace.

59 (is to err): L'aphorisme latin dit : << Errare humanum est, perseverare diabolicum >> : <<L'erreur est humaine, y persister vient du diable. >>
The Latine aphorism says: “Errare humanum est, perseverare diabolicum”: “Error is human, to persist in it comes from the devil.”

60 (has a scrubbing callus): Ce terme << franglais >> de Guernesey est attesté dans les carnet de l'exil (scrober, scrobeuse, scrobage) où Hugo notait les journées de travail des servantes venues récurer et frotter escalier et parquets.
This franglais term [scrobage] from Guernesey is attested in the notebooks of exile (scrober, scrobeuse, scrobage) where Hugo noted the workdays of servants come to scour and scrub the stairs and floors.

61 (Euphorion): Peintre grec ; mais peut-être s'appelait-il plutôt Euphronios.
Greek painter; but perhaps he was earlier called [url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euphronios]Euphronios[/i].

62 (to call yourself marguerite or pearl): Voir la note 34 de ce livre. Tholomyès connaît sans doute aussi l'expression latine : << margaritas ante porcos >> : << donner des perles aux cochons >>.
See note 34 in this book. Tholomyès also undoubtedly knows the Latin expression “margaritas ante porcos”: “To give pearls to swine”. [Because it it patently obvious Tholomyès is a complete bastard.]

63 (a pretty woman is a flagrant crime): Comme Léonie Biard.
Like Léonie Biard. [OMG, I can't believe it just stops there. This connects directly with Note 50. Léonie Biard is the woman Hugo was cheating on Juliette with and the reason she was sharpening her knives. She found out and the shit hit the fan. Which is rich considering he was still married to Adèle, after all, but this was drama drama drama.]

64 (Romulus carried off the Sabines): Épisode scolairement très connu de la légende romaine. Guillaume : le Conquérant.
Scholarly episode well known from the Roman legend. William: the Conqueror.

65 (Indigestion and digest): Jeu de mots : le Digeste est le code de l'empereur Justinien.
Play on words: the Digest is the code of Emperor Justinian.

66 (Elleviou): Chanteur de l'opéra comique renommé et très cher – d'où le << gratis >> -, qui venait alors de se retirer.
Famous and very expensive comic opera singer – from where the “gratis” - who at that time had just retired.
What kind of literature and what kind of life is the same question. - Tom Stoppard


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