I know this is an older question, but I felt like engulfing myself in a little research project: Les Halles
is the quintessential Parisian market from as early as the 1100's. The Halle aux Blés (or Corn Exchange, using the English equivalent) housing the grain and flour traders was built in the 1760's and the "modern day" update of Les Halles from an open market to the iconic iron-and-glass building happened in the 1850's. (Check out Emile Zola's The Belly of Paris for a fun read that delves into the life of Les Halles and also a world of Parisian cuisine.) It was a wholesale market that served all walks of life with sections for (as mentioned) grain and flour, as well as drapers, shoemakers, tinkers, weavers, fish-sellers, leather-workers, bread and dairy products, meat, herbs and vegetables, wine, flowers, etc. You name it: it was for sale at Les Halles. If you look at an older map of Paris
, you'll notice that all of the little side streets around Les Halles have names that describe who was selling what where: Rue de la Ganterie was for the glovemakers, Rue de la Chanvrerie (which, of course, houses the Corinth) was for hemp. (For Les Halles, look at the Île de la Cité and go north along the Pont Neuf to that bolded circular roundabout and move a little to the east to see streets like Rue de la Tonnellerie (coopers) and Friperie (second-hand clothing).)
To digress: the Cafe Musain being by what was once the Place St Michel but is now the Place Edmond Rostand (near the Jardin du Luxembourg), the walk from the Musain to the Corinth would be about a half hour with La Sorbonne between them and Les Halles right near the Corinth for all your shopping needs. (It's arguable that everyone would have lived relatively near to each of these locations given the need to buy things, spend time in class and also hang out at both the Musain and the Corinth without the benefit of consistent carriage rides. Though probably affordable to the likes of Enjolras, Courfeyrac and Prouvaire, not necessarily a cost-efficient way to go about one's day-to-day business.)
But Les Halles isn't the only market in Paris, just it's biggest and most central. In 1808, the flower and shrub vendors moved from Les Halles to the Île de la Cité to form Le Marché aux Fleurs
, the flower market. This isn't just for fresh-cut flowers, this is for full on potted plants and bulbs. (Re: M. Cultivated-a-Pot-of-Flowers Prouvaire.) Le Marché aux Oiseaux
, the bird market, was located behind Le Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers north of Les Halles. Not so much for geese and chickens that you're going to throw in a pot for supper, but exotic songbirds meant to be kept as pets. It joined the flower market on the Île de la Cité in the 1880's.Le Marché des Enfants Rouges
, named for the red-clad orphans at a nearby orphanage, was a smaller version of Les Halles, featuring the marketplace staples of butchers, fresh fruits, vegetables, bread, fish, etc. On the Rue de Bretagne it's actually stupidly close to Les Halles. Le Carreau du Temple
was a covered market built in 1811 in the Marais, converted into an iron-and-glass structure in the 1860's. It specialized in the sale of clothing, specifically secondhand clothing. Again, it's a stone's throw from Les Halles and spitting distance from Le Marché des Enfants Rouges.
Dickens wrote a really fun "Dictionary of Paris
" that although based around the 1880's includes information about marketplaces that would have existed in the 1830's, including the aforementioned flower market as well as the Horse Market (and accompanying Dog Market) in Saint Michel among others.